National Socialism saw it as its goal to improve the life of the high-spirited and pure-minded Aryan peoples. For this, it was supposed to be less Aryan, from the point of view of the ideologists of the Third Reich, the people either to thin out, or to completely destroy. The two largest national minorities in Europe were sentenced to destruction: Jews and Roma. The first victims of the fight against the Roma were the German Sinti Roma. Many of those captured in this collection of photographs from the thirties did not survive the forties.
In western Europe, the Gypsies ended up after the Ottomans conquered Byzantium - before that, the Gypsies had lived in the empire for a long time, which can be easily traced from the references in tax papers. The chroniclers of Europe mention that the gypsies were led by some gypsy dukes, people of remarkable education and manners. The famous gypsy scholar Nikolai Bessonov believed that these were representatives of the Byzantine nobility who tried to survive the resettlement and, moreover, remain at least some kind of elite. Of course, in order to go exactly to the "gypsy dukes" and then wander all over Europe, a certain amount of adventurousness was required, so it is not surprising that there were not so many dukes. But there were enough gypsies, they were removed from the places with whole settlements and villages.
In Europe, Roma lived partly by charity, partly by performing tricks and dancing, and partly by traditional crafts.
This did not last very long. A protracted crisis began in Europe, the roads were overflowing with vagabonds, and the authorities of different countries passed laws against representatives of roving castes: professional beggars, musicians, artisans without a guild, and separately gypsies, who combined all three seditious signs. It must be understood that in those days, such laws were not limited to deportation: gypsies and gypsies were branded, their ears cut off, and they were executed by death. Europe consisted mainly of very small states, so that gypsies, moving from one to another, acquired a large collection of stamps. Death was supposed if the gypsies entered the principality or county a second time (during the search, this was evident by the stigma).
Laws were enforced unevenly in different countries. The French killed all the Roma in the country. In Spain and Germany, plenty of them survived. When in Europe there was a softening of morals - in the nineteenth century - it was the German Gypsies who basically re-colonized the territories of France. These gypsies are known as Sinti.
I must say that the word "rum" is known to Sinti gypsies. They use it towards their men. Nevertheless, they call the people "Sinti", and ethnographers argue about the origin of this name. It can come, for example, from the Sindh River (which the Europeans call the "Indus") or from the name of one of the first leaders.
In any case, Sinti became the ancestors of the Roma of France, Poland, Sweden, Finland and Russia. The dialects of the Gypsies of these countries are still so similar that Russian Gypsies can listen to Swedish Gypsy radio without any problems, and German Gypsies can sing songs of Polish Gypsies without difficulty.
In the nineteenth century, when the attitude towards the Roma in Europe softened everywhere, the Roma artists in Germany were able to legalize, in the summer many Roma began to be hired for seasonal work or to manufacture (or purchase) and sell small, necessary objects in everyday life. By the thirties, German Roma had already made up a lot and were noticeably integrated into the community. Many settled down. Some continued to wander.
From among the gypsies, their own German star, the popular boxer Johann Trollmann, has emerged.He was known not only for a large number of victories, but also for his special manner of movement in the ring, which was called the Trollmann dance. To the Nazis who came to power, he was like a thorn in the eye. Johann was stripped of his champion title, sterilized and eventually sent to a concentration camp along with other German gypsies. There he was killed.
Before collecting gypsies in concentration camps, and then exterminating them there, the Nazis meticulously examined their anthropometric data and rewrote them. This is a valuable material for ethnography, but scientists of the world would prefer never to receive such an array of information - if it is collected under such circumstances and for such purposes. From many German gypsies, only these records remained: anthropometry, name, age, occupation.
As with Jews or Slavs, the persecution and murder of Roma was explained by the fact that they were not fit for life in a normal society. Nazi brochures broadcast stereotypes that became obsolete by the thirties, claiming that Roma were unteachable, unable to work and deeply asocial due to their natural inclinations.
In the Third Reich, Roma were also forbidden to marry Germans and participate in elections, their citizenship was taken away. Some of the mixed families were able to save the children by the fact that the parents divorced and the children left with their German mother or German father into the wilderness to the other end of the country. Some of the half-breeds were destroyed in concentration camps. To kill the Roma, they were taken to the territory of Poland, to Auschwitz (Auschwitz).
At first, some Roma tried to redeem their families' lives by going to the front. In 1943, all Gypsies in Germany were arrested, including the recipients of military awards and their relatives. In concentration camps, Sinti were not massacred in gas chambers, like other Gypsies, for example, the Calderars who also roamed around Germany after the abolition of slavery in Romania, but under the conditions created they themselves died of hunger and disease. The genocide severely threw the Sinti community back in development, they developed a distrust of the state, until recently Sinti tried to avoid schools and hospitals, and this hit education and living standards.
Rock 'n' Roll, Napoleonic Wars and the Pushkin Museum: It's hard not to notice how the gypsies were noted in world culture.
Popular by topic
These girls in Soviet times were the real favorites of the audience. Some of them played a major role in the film and became famous, while others did not go unnoticed as a supporting actress. However, each of these girls deserved respect for their patience and perseverance, because on the set they had the same load as adult actors. Who have young talents become after they matured?
Why Olga Drozdova decided to leave theater and cinema: How, after 40 years, the life of an actress began anew
On May 8, actress Olga Drozdova left the Sovremennik theater, on the stage of which she had performed for more than 30 years, and after a while her husband, actor Dmitry Pevtsov, announced that his wife not only said goodbye to the theater, but also ended her acting career … What made the 56-year-old artist make such a decision, why after 40 years her life has changed dramatically, and what she plans to do in the future - further in the review
3 marriages and later happiness of Yuri Bogatikov: Why did the famous performer confess his feelings to his wife only shortly before his departure
He was called "the marshal of the Soviet song", he was a star of the same magnitude as Joseph Kobzon and Muslim Magomayev. “Dark mounds are sleeping” and “Listen, mother-in-law” were sung with him by millions of listeners. Yuri Bogatikov had many admirers and admirers, but he did not immediately find his happiness, and he did not recognize it on the first try. The singer was very fond of the woman who was next to him in the last years of his life, but he could tell her about his feelings only shortly before his departure
During the Great Patriotic War, many Soviet cities were destroyed almost to the ground. In the post-war years, the buildings had to be restored; captured German soldiers were actively involved in this process. What were they like, the buildings that were erected by the Wehrmacht military in the Soviet Union? Read in the material how the stories about the incredibly comfortable "German" housing arose, in which cities the German "builders" worked, and what is happening with German buildings today
Military everyday life of the Soviet militia, and what they were responsible for in the Great Patriotic guards of order
During the Great Patriotic War, the police were entrusted with tasks that went far beyond their traditional functions. In the harsh wartime, work on the protection of law and order was combined with the identification of fascist saboteurs, the protection of important objects from artillery attacks, and the evacuation of the population and enterprises. Not much is known about the exploits of Soviet militiamen during the war years. Meanwhile, enthusiastic historians have unearthed many facts about the exemplary heroism of employees of the internal affairs bodies, shown in the