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Why the "right hand of Stalin" Malenkov lost to Khrushchev: the meteoric rise and fiasco of the third leader of the Land of Soviets
Why the "right hand of Stalin" Malenkov lost to Khrushchev: the meteoric rise and fiasco of the third leader of the Land of Soviets
Anonim

Georgy Malenkov is still considered an ambiguous figure. Many historians assign him the role of "the right hand of the Master" and perhaps the main supporter of repression. Others, on the contrary, accuse Khrushchev of lack of will and do not forgive the quiet surrender of all power in the 50s. Whoever this politician was, he somehow managed to quickly rise to the top, and then suddenly lose all the highest posts and regalia.

Poor shooting Malenkov and rapprochement with Lenin

Joseph Stalin and Georgy Malenkov at an exhibition of captured German weapons at the Central Park of Culture and Leisure. 1943 year

Born into a family with Macedonian noble roots, Georgy Malenkov grew up as a child very capable of science. In the gymnasium, both mathematics and literature were equally easy for him. A keen mind and diligence helped him finish his studies with a gold medal. In 1919, after joining the Red Army, he took part in the civil war. But, according to popular rumors, Malenkov shot poorly and rode uncertainly. But as a zealous and knowledgeable person in office work, at the time of the clash between whites and reds, he copied papers and was in charge of documentation.

In 1920, Georgy Maximilianovich became the owner of the party card of the RCP (b), and in 1921 he went to Moscow to the Technical University (MVTU) for higher education. There he took his first steps at the leadership level, leading the "purges" among the student followers of Leon Trotsky. In the 20-30s, there was a rapid career growth of the future head of the country. Starting as a member of the organizational department of the Central Committee, he came to the technical secretary of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU and to replace Yezhov himself. Some historians argue that Lenin planned to make Malenkov, not Joseph Vissarionovich, as his successor. In 1921, relations between the two leaders went wrong due to the rapprochement between Vladimir Ilyich and Leon Trotsky, the disrespected Joseph Vissarionovich. But the party decided otherwise, and after the death of Ilyich, Stalin became the head of the Soviet Union. Malenkov, on the other hand, actually turned into a puppet of Stalin, carrying out any orders of his generalissimo.

Stalin's trust and participation in the repressions

Failed successor to Stalin

Thanks to his extreme diligence in front of the generalissimo and the desire to accurately carry out any orders, Malenkov automatically approached the leader. At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, he is a member of the State Defense Committee, takes part in important military operations, oversees the activities of the People's Commissariat of the aviation industry. During this period Malenkov was awarded the honorary rank of Lieutenant General. At the end of the war, he actually became Stalin's deputy for the party. At the 19th Congress in 1952, he even delivered a summary report instead of the leader himself.

Malenkov played an important role in the well-known "Leningrad affair", having toughly opposed the blockade heroes and had a hand in destroying the Leningrad Party organization. As a result of this operation, all the objectionable party leadership was arrested, for whose punishment they even urgently returned the death penalty. The authoritative duet "Malenkov-Beria" was then formed, with which all representatives of the Politburo, without exception, were careful not to get involved. All key decisions, of course, were made by Stalin.But the current affairs were managed by the first deputies, in many ways influencing the policy of the state.

An influential wife and Malenkov the family man

Malenkov with his family

Malenkov married back in the Civil War, opting for Valeria Golubtsova, later known at the Moscow post of director of the Energy Institute. Historians unanimously argue that she was the main driver of a weak husband. As the leader of Yugoslavia M. Dzhilas recalled, Malenkov looked like a man without a pronounced will and character. He lacked the strength and cunning to hold on to power. Pliable by nature, he was not capable of independent steps, while being a brilliant executor of other people's decisions. But his wife had an abundance of character.

Valeria Alekseevna pushed her husband forward throughout her life. In fact, she was the first to enter the Central Committee apparatus, and only after she brought Malenkov into politics. She sacrificed her party career, leaving the post and choosing the role of the gray cardinal. Malenkov has never been a power maniac. As his children recalled, he always found time for family affairs. Malenkov-father regularly read books aloud at home. On weekends at the state dacha, the family spent time watching films. Fond of physics, Malenkov equipped a laboratory for children at his dacha, where there was a microscope, a telescope, and electric motors. Georgy Maximilianovich taught children music, French. As a result, his son Andrei grew up as a professor-biophysicist, Georgy Malenkov Jr. successfully defended his dissertation in chemistry. The daughter chose art as her business, taught at the Stroganov Art School.

Unpopular post-Stalinist measures and a quiet fall

Khrushchev easily defeated Malenkov in the power struggle

After the death of Stalin, Georgy Maximilianovich became the master of a huge country. His membership card became the third. The first was discharged to Lenin, the second to Joseph Vissarionovich. As head of government, Malenkov made an attempt to crank up reforms that were not the most popular in the Land of the Soviets. He was the first to voice the thesis about the possible coexistence of the capitalist and communist systems in the world. By Soviet standards, he proved himself to be a liberal. Malenkov took the bureaucracy seriously, significantly reducing the monetary rewards to party functionaries.

Some researchers believe that it was this step that killed him. Khrushchev, who soon came to power, restored all the previous orders, thereby increasing the influence of the First Secretary among the apparatchiks. Malenkov dared to repeal a number of unshakable Stalinist bans. He declared the foreign press legal and lifted many restrictions on travel abroad. Being very quickly removed by Khrushchev, Malenkov made a choice in favor of a quiet family life. Until his death, he did not remind anyone of his existence in any way.

And a serious conflict happened at Malenkov's with the pilot Valentina Grizodubova.

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