Miscellaneous 2022, December

Why sinners were called "the daughters of Melusine", or the myth of the damned fairy that shaped Europe

Why sinners were called "the daughters of Melusine", or the myth of the damned fairy that shaped Europe (2022)

According to ancient legend, Melusine was the daughter of a Scottish king and a fairy. As a result of the curse, she was doomed to change from a woman to a monster every Saturday. Her two legs became fish tails. The image of Melusine is ubiquitous. It is a frequent heraldic symbol. Every European nation has legends about this fairy, and many royal dynasties descend from her. Melusine's image has even become a Starbucks emblem. In the patriarchal Middle Ages, this symbol

How it happened that the Soviet Union exchanged warships for Pepsi

How it happened that the Soviet Union exchanged warships for Pepsi (2022)

Pepsi is the undisputed global soft drink giant. It has long been firmly rooted in the Russian market. It started back in the early 1970s, when Russia was part of the Soviet Union. It was the first swallow of the hostile capitalist world to enter the communist market. At that time, the rivalry between the two countries was so fierce that it becomes unclear how the American company managed to do this?

How teenagers and rock 'n' roll made vaccination fashionable: King Elvis saves the world from an epidemic

How teenagers and rock 'n' roll made vaccination fashionable: King Elvis saves the world from an epidemic (2022)

The polio virus has kept millions of parents at bay for years. In America, by 1955, tens of thousands of children were infected, many were disabled. Hope came with the discovery of a vaccine against this terrible disease. But those who wanted to be vaccinated were negligible. In search of a solution to this problem, the government attracted the most popular person in the United States at that time - Elvis Presley. The king of rock and roll was able to dramatically change the opinion of all Americans (and not only) about vaccination. How did the musician manage to

Because of what one year only lasted 445 days and other interesting facts about the calendar

Because of what one year only lasted 445 days and other interesting facts about the calendar (2022)

Most of the world has been calculating time for four centuries using a calendar called the Gregorian. The year of this calendar is divided into 12 months and lasts 365 days. One additional day is added every four years. Such a year is called a leap year. This is necessary in order to remove the difference between the movement of the sun and the calendar. This concept was introduced in the late 16th century by Pope Gregory XIII as a reform of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar is generally accepted because

The secret of the 1200-year-old man-made caves, where the exiled king hid, is revealed

The secret of the 1200-year-old man-made caves, where the exiled king hid, is revealed (2022)

In the English county of Derbyshire there is a very ancient network of man-made caves. For a long time, scientists fought to unravel the secrets of these structures. They could not understand either their origin or purpose in any way. New research has shed light on this question. The caves turned out to be a thousand years older than historians originally believed. In addition, they were the haven of the exiled king, who was later canonized

Who and why plans to send a search expedition to Antarctica in 2022

Who and why plans to send a search expedition to Antarctica in 2022 (2022)

Sir Ernest Shackleton's missing ship, the Endurance, has become a legend. One of the most famous ships in the world sank in the Weddell Sea in Antarctica. This happened during the unfortunate expedition of the explorer in 1914-17 and marked the end of the "heroic era" of the exploration of the ice continent. Over the years, there have been many attempts to locate the crash site, but they were all unsuccessful. A fearless scientist named John Shears is set to take another one in early 2022. Why is he t

What the Olympics looked like in the "dark ages", or Why do they think that the Middle Ages destroyed sports?

What the Olympics looked like in the "dark ages", or Why do they think that the Middle Ages destroyed sports? (2022)

Five rings and the slogan “Faster. Above. Stronger”are integral symbols of the Olympic Games, which are almost 120 years old. Of course, their history is not limited to such a modest time period, it is much older. Contrary to popular belief that the Middle Ages was a dark time in which sports competitions did not exist, this is not at all the case. Then, too, sports flourished, and competitions were held. What the medieval Olympiad looked like, further in the review

Historians have discovered facts that deny the superiority of Europe over Africa

Historians have discovered facts that deny the superiority of Europe over Africa (2022)

Modern science has long proved that Africa is the homeland of humanity. The history of this continent is incredibly ancient and very rich. Since ancient times, the Europeans have established trade relations with various regions of this continent. Then the "white people" tried with might and main to belittle the knowledge and power of the African empire. The age-old ignorance of the truth has cost everyone dearly. New history and recent research fundamentally change the historically formed erroneous stereotype of European superiority

How Samuel Morse's personal tragedy pushed him to create the world's most famous alphabet

How Samuel Morse's personal tragedy pushed him to create the world's most famous alphabet (2022)

Morse code was a revolutionary development at one time. She was widely used in trade and war, sent personal messages with her help, and even … talked with deceased relatives! It was one of the crucial steps in creating a technology that everyone today takes for granted. Here are some interesting little-known facts about Morse code and its impact on the modern life of humanity

6 monarchs who took the throne as children but made very adult decisions

6 monarchs who took the throne as children but made very adult decisions (2022)

The burden of power weighs upon the mature and experienced. What can we say about those who had to take on the heavy duty of ruling an entire country at a very tender age? In a word, the milk has not yet dried on his lips, but he is already on the royal throne. Someone managed to strengthen the state, someone caused irreparable harm that several subsequent generations of wise rulers could not fix. Learn about six monarchs who were destined to ascend to the throne as a child, but whose actions and decisions were made by very grown-ups

How the Persians Defeated the Egyptians by Throwing Cats at Them: The Legendary Battle of Pelusia

How the Persians Defeated the Egyptians by Throwing Cats at Them: The Legendary Battle of Pelusia (2022)

Throughout history, it was not enough for people to kill each other in their endless wars. They also killed innocent animals. Traditionally, mounts suffered, such as horses, mules, elephants. Less commonly, dogs, birds, pigs and snakes. Different types of them were used in different ways. Probably one of the most unheard-of helpers in military affairs were … cats! It was the mustachioed striped that helped the Persians to defeat the Egyptians. Details of the most extraordinary battle using the world's first psychic attack, d

How ridiculous medieval fashion sent a man to the next world

How ridiculous medieval fashion sent a man to the next world (2022)

At all times, the concept of a victim of fashion has existed. The Middle Ages were no exception. Not only the ladies suffered from ridiculous fashion whims, but also the men. Experts examined the remains of almost two hundred men from the period of the 14-15 centuries and came to very disappointing conclusions. Negative changes were discovered, caused by the strange pointed shoes of those times. She was incredibly expensive, uncomfortable, but extremely high status. Why were these shoes exactly the same and how did they send the owners to that St

What scientists learned about the epic battle of Christians and Muslims, or How Saladin captured Jerusalem

What scientists learned about the epic battle of Christians and Muslims, or How Saladin captured Jerusalem (2022)

As soon as it comes to the crusades, the names of Richard the Lionheart and Saladin immediately come to mind. These are two legendary leaders and commanders, real legends are made about them. Richard I Plantagenet is the most famous of the English kings, his name is mentioned at least as often as the mythical King Arthur. Unlike the latter, Richard is a real historical figure, like Saladin. Their lives are intertwined together and the story is very reminiscent of a chivalric romance

What helped the Khmer Empire achieve colossal success in the pre-industrial world

What helped the Khmer Empire achieve colossal success in the pre-industrial world (2022)

The Khmer Empire once covered most of Southeast Asia, and its capital was the largest city in the pre-industrial world. The secret of their success was hydraulic engineering. They have curbed the monsoon and used it to their advantage. The water management system has been designed to collect and store water throughout the year. That is why, the Khmer people had food, water supply, sewerage and transportation network

Than the daughter of the blind Theban king Antigonus conquered the ancient poets

Than the daughter of the blind Theban king Antigonus conquered the ancient poets (2022)

Surely many have heard, at least with the edge of their ears, about the tragic fate of Antigone, defending the laws of the gods and facing trial according to the laws of man. But few people know about the details that led to a series of sad and irreversible events, which later became an integral part of works of art

Who were the Huns, why they were so feared and other interesting facts about the masters of rapid raids and their king Attila

Who were the Huns, why they were so feared and other interesting facts about the masters of rapid raids and their king Attila (2022)

Of all the groups that invaded the Roman Empire, none caused more fear than the Huns. Their superior combat technology drove thousands of people to flee westward in the 5th century AD. NS. The Huns existed as a horror story long before they actually appeared. Their charismatic and ferocious leader Attila, who by his mere appearance, made people around them fearful, causing the Romans to panic attacks, was no exception. In later times, the word "Hun" became a derogatory term and a parable in I

Who are medieval hermits, and why did they agree to be walled up alive

Who are medieval hermits, and why did they agree to be walled up alive (2022)

In the Middle Ages, some women and men agreed to be walled up alive, which today raises many questions and bewilderment, but at that time it was commonplace. What was the main reason for this decision and why the hermits were walled up alive of their own free will - further in the article

Frida Kahlo and Leon Trotsky: Why the last love of the disgraced revolutionary was accused of his death

Frida Kahlo and Leon Trotsky: Why the last love of the disgraced revolutionary was accused of his death (2022)

The Mexican artist is known not only for her unique paintings. Despite the pain and physical suffering, Frida Kahlo was distinguished by a lively character and liberation. All her life she loved her husband, the eccentric monumentalist Diego Rivera, but, tired of his endless betrayals, she started romances on the side. One of her hobbies was the disgraced Russian revolutionary Lev Trotsky, whom she literally lost his mind. After the tragic death of Trotsky, she came under suspicion of being charged

What 9 male names were not given to children in the Romanov dynasty and why

What 9 male names were not given to children in the Romanov dynasty and why (2022)

Different peoples and cultures have their own traditions and prejudices associated with the names of children. Someone translated names from foreign languages ​​and, in accordance with the meaning, did not want to call their children them, believing that they could influence his fate. And for some, the not particularly prevalent life of people with certain names served as a negative example. The Romanov dynasty also had its own superstitions

8 best Soviet vacation comedies worth revisiting this summer

8 best Soviet vacation comedies worth revisiting this summer (2022)

Summer is an opportunity to enjoy the hot sun and gentle sea, it is a trip to the mountains and sitting with a guitar around the fire, a passionate holiday romance and a bright adventure. Summer is a small life, and everyone has their own life. Perhaps this is why filmmakers around the world make so many films about vacations and summer vacations. We propose to recall and revise the best Soviet comedies, which are able to season the outgoing summer with light notes of nostalgia and bring smiles on faces

8 reasons why the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens was far from being as pleasant an institution as is commonly believed

8 reasons why the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens was far from being as pleasant an institution as is commonly believed (2022)

For a long time, the first women's educational institution in Russia was covered with an aura of romanticism. The Institute for Noble Maidens, created by the project of the President of the Academy of Arts Ivan Betsky and by order of Catherine II, was the beginning of reforms in the field of education. It was assumed that people of a new type would be brought up here, so the students had to adhere to certain and rather strict rules. Unfortunately, the graduates often retained far from the most pleasant memories of the years of study at Smolny

Why the star of the film "The Adventures of Prince Florizel" did not have titles and awards: Valery Matveev

Why the star of the film "The Adventures of Prince Florizel" did not have titles and awards: Valery Matveev (2022)

He did not act in films so often, and the roles of Valery Matveev were not at all the main ones. The audience remembered him, first of all, in the image of the cowboy Frank Scrimgeour in the film "The Adventures of Prince Florizel" by Evgeny Tatarsky. Fans of Soviet cinema will also remember the roles of the actor in "Monologue" by Ilya Averbakh, "Charlotte's Necklace" by the same Yevgeny Tatarsky and other wonderful films. Valery Matveev served for forty years in the legendary BDT, where he came at the invitation of Tovstonogov himself. But despite

7 most beautiful young actresses of Soviet cinema: How their life and career developed

7 most beautiful young actresses of Soviet cinema: How their life and career developed (2022)

These girls in Soviet times were the real favorites of the audience. Some of them played a major role in the film and became famous, while others did not go unnoticed as a supporting actress. However, each of these girls deserved respect for their patience and perseverance, because on the set they had the same load as adult actors. Who have young talents become after they matured?

How 24 Roman emperors shared power during the crisis of the III century and what all this led to

How 24 Roman emperors shared power during the crisis of the III century and what all this led to (2022)

In the first half of the third century, the bishop of Carthage in North Africa, the future Saint Cyprian, tried to refute the claims of a certain Demetrius that Christianity was the cause of the evil that persecuted the Roman Empire. While searching for answers to the question of what happened during the turbulent five decades between 235 and 284 AD, when the Roman Empire seemed to be teetering on the brink, the bishop gave an impressive answer about a world engulfed in a maelstrom of chaos in which king

Post in memory of Anatoly Rudakov: Why the actor gave up teaching and did not act in films for 5 years

Post in memory of Anatoly Rudakov: Why the actor gave up teaching and did not act in films for 5 years (2022)

On August 1, 2021, Anatoly Rudakov, a legendary actor who played more than 100 roles in films and TV shows, passed away, he succeeded in both character roles and comic ones. Misha, Vali's husband in "Young Wife", Gosha Ovsov in "State Border", Albinet in the film "In Search of Captain Grant" - these are only a small part of the vivid roles played by Anatoly Rudakov. But there was a five-year period in his life when he did not act in films at all. And then he turned down an offer to teach acting

Love at first sight and 35 years of happiness "lyrics" by Bulat Okudzhava and "physics" by Olga Artsimovich

Love at first sight and 35 years of happiness "lyrics" by Bulat Okudzhava and "physics" by Olga Artsimovich (2022)

Undoubtedly, the lyricist in this pair was Bulat Okudzhava, and the physicist - Olga Artsimovich, and not in a figurative sense, but in the most direct sense. She grew up in a family of physicists and studied science herself. She had nothing in common with the "lyricists" and before meeting with Bulat Okudzhava, she was not only not interested in his work, but had not even heard of him. They were very different, but they had only one thing in common: the same love at first sight, which united them at the moment of meeting and for the rest of their lives

How to go against public opinion and be happy: Celine Dion and Rene Angelil

How to go against public opinion and be happy: Celine Dion and Rene Angelil (2022)

Once upon a time Celine Dion surprised the whole world with her incredible mezzo-soprano with a range of five octaves. She is still called one of the most influential voices in pop music, and the song from "Titanic", which she performed, won the hearts of millions of viewers. But even before that Celine Dion won the heart of Rene Angelil, whom she met when she was only 12. The music producer and "talent manager", as he was called in Canada, was already 38 years old

How was the fate of Monica Lewinsky - the intern who made a lot of noise in the White House

How was the fate of Monica Lewinsky - the intern who made a lot of noise in the White House (2022)

In the late 1990s, this girl became one of the most famous people in the world. The details of her relationship with US President Bill Clinton became the subject of discussion and condemnation, and the consequences of her publication changed Monica Lewinsky's whole life. At that time, she could not even imagine what the results of her frankness would be, because even after more than twenty years, Monica Lewinsky has to hear offensive statements in her address

Why 10 famous actors hate their iconic roles that viewers love

Why 10 famous actors hate their iconic roles that viewers love (2022)

Actors are known to become famous for their talent and the roles they have played. A successful role in a successful film can raise an actor to the heights of fame, and therefore the images embodied on the screen in cult films are usually loved, and the memories of them are filled with warmth. Surprisingly, some artists literally hate their iconic roles

How women and men were punished for adultery in Russia

How women and men were punished for adultery in Russia (2022)

The attitude towards the institution of the family in Russia has changed over the centuries, but, with the exception of a short post-revolutionary period, it has always been rather scrupulous. But the attitude to the fact of treason almost did not change, infidelity was condemned, blamed and punished. True, it was easier for men in this regard, but sometimes the punishment was extended to the stronger sex as well. Women, as a rule, got much more

A real story based on which the cult Soviet film about the tragic love of adolescents was filmed

A real story based on which the cult Soviet film about the tragic love of adolescents was filmed (2022)

The film about touching childish love, which grew into a deep feeling, was probably watched by millions of viewers. But hardly anyone guessed that the scriptwriter based the film on a very real story about how a boy was in love with a capricious wayward girl right from childhood to the last day. True, the ending of the picture leaves the audience the right to come up with the further destinies of the main characters themselves

How was the fate of the 1980s star Lyudmila Shevel, who refused the charismatic Oleg Yankovsky

How was the fate of the 1980s star Lyudmila Shevel, who refused the charismatic Oleg Yankovsky (2022)

In the filmography of this actress, there are more than forty works in the cinema, among which, beloved by more than one generation of viewers, "Lonely is given a hostel", "Dance Floor", "Where is the nofelet" and others. Lyudmila Shevel was actively filming in the 1980s, but already in the 1990s her fame began to wane, and now she appears on the screens quite rarely. But the actress managed to attract attention to herself a couple of years ago, talking about how she rejected the claims of Oleg Yankovsky himself

For which the actor Anatoly Bely is grateful to Marina Golub, and what he cannot accept after her departure

For which the actor Anatoly Bely is grateful to Marina Golub, and what he cannot accept after her departure (2022)

Today, Anatoly Bely, who celebrated his 49th birthday on August 1, is one of the most sought-after actors, Honored Artist of Russia, in whose filmography there are already more than 100 roles. Only this year, 4 new projects with his participation were released and 4 more are in the production stage. And 20 years ago no one knew his name, no one believed in his talent, except for his first wife - the famous actress Marina Golub. For which he is still grateful to her and what he regretted after her premature departure - further in about

Why the legendary Frenchwoman Mireille Mathieu twice escaped from under the aisle and never found personal happiness

Why the legendary Frenchwoman Mireille Mathieu twice escaped from under the aisle and never found personal happiness (2022)

She conquered the whole world with her voice and unique manner of performance, millions of spectators applauded her, and the Soviet Union became love for her at first sight. Mireille Mathieu admired her talent, sophistication and style. The singer had many fans, she was credited with novels with the most famous people. Anyway, her personal life was fanned with an aura of rumors and speculation. She preferred to be silent about what remained outside the stage. Mireille Mathieu always dreamed of great true love, but two

How does the star of "Veras" live, Yadviga Poplavskaya, who could not come to terms with the departure of her husband Alexander Tikhanovich

How does the star of "Veras" live, Yadviga Poplavskaya, who could not come to terms with the departure of her husband Alexander Tikhanovich (2022)

They lived together for almost 45 years, during which they were practically inseparable. Yadviga Poplavskaya and Alexander Tikhanovich have always been associated with the Verasy ensemble, even when the performers were forced to leave the group. They have traveled a difficult path, but at the same time they have always remained an example of an ideal family for many people. Alexander Tikhanovich died four years ago, and Yadviga Poplavskaya admits: she still has not resigned herself to loss, and time does not have healing power at all

Why did the "all-Union drummer" Nikolai Gnatyuk disappear from the stage, and how he lives today?

Why did the "all-Union drummer" Nikolai Gnatyuk disappear from the stage, and how he lives today? (2022)

Songs performed by Nikolai Hnatiuk were invariably popular, they listened to him spellbound, sang along with him and waited impatiently for his performances. "Dance on the Drum", "Bird of Happiness", "Crimson Ringing" - these songs are known and loved to this day. Glory, recognition, crowds of fans did not enter the performer in awe, but as if they were away from him. The singer remained modest and restrained, he was not characterized by "star" behavior, he rarely gave interviews, and two years ago he decided

8 years of marriage and 25 years of clarifying the relationship: Why Viktor and Irina Saltykov cannot find a common language

8 years of marriage and 25 years of clarifying the relationship: Why Viktor and Irina Saltykov cannot find a common language (2022)

Their romance began so beautifully that it seemed like a fairy tale. Viktor Saltykov and his future wife Irina, approaching the doors of the registry office, sincerely believed that they would live together until the end of their days. But the reality turned out to be much sadder and more prosaic than their hopes: after only eight years, the marriage broke up. A quarter of a century has passed since that time, and the former spouses still remind of themselves by publicly clarifying the relationship about who became guilty of the divorce

3 marriages and later happiness of Yuri Bogatikov: Why did the famous performer confess his feelings to his wife only shortly before his departure

3 marriages and later happiness of Yuri Bogatikov: Why did the famous performer confess his feelings to his wife only shortly before his departure (2022)

He was called "the marshal of the Soviet song", he was a star of the same magnitude as Joseph Kobzon and Muslim Magomayev. “Dark mounds are sleeping” and “Listen, mother-in-law” were sung with him by millions of listeners. Yuri Bogatikov had many admirers and admirers, but he did not immediately find his happiness, and he did not recognize it on the first try. The singer was very fond of the woman who was next to him in the last years of his life, but he could tell her about his feelings only shortly before his departure

Ukrainian oligarchs in tsarist Russia: With what savings 100 years ago a Kievite bought the world's largest yacht

Ukrainian oligarchs in tsarist Russia: With what savings 100 years ago a Kievite bought the world's largest yacht (2022)

Kiev resident Mikhail Tereshchenko owned a fabulous fortune, the world's largest yacht and the world's second largest blue diamond. A native of Ukrainian petty bourgeois Cossacks, he gravitated towards politics, had a reputation as a successful entrepreneur of the Russian Empire, managed to visit the finance ministers under the Provisional Government. Tereshchenko is credited with sponsoring the February Revolution of 1917. Some historians claim that his funds were used to prepare and organize the overthrow of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II

Who and when began to record the real sagas and why they cannot be completely trusted

Who and when began to record the real sagas and why they cannot be completely trusted (2022)

The saga is not only a series of films about "Star Wars" or about the vampire family. Strictly speaking, only the work that was recorded during the late Middle Ages in Scandinavia, more precisely in Iceland, can be considered a real saga. It was assumed that these manuscripts truthfully tell about the events of the past, but modern scholars have serious doubts about the reliability of what was written