Table of contents:
- Why Moscow?
- Household habits and interpersonal relationships left over from the conquerors
- Patriarchy and gender inequality as a legacy from the East
- Turkic influence on the Russian language
After the Tatar-Mongol yoke, Kievan Rus began to be designated by a variety of names. But most often it was called the Great Tartary, and this was, if not fair, then quite natural. The European neighbors noted how much the customs, traditions and customs of the people of Kiev had changed. Now it was a population that gravitated towards an Asian mentality rather than a European one. Time put everything in its place, but the habits that remained from the Tatar-Mongols are still found, including some words, which only confirms that the invasion of the Tatar-Mughals laid its own cultural layer.
Before the invasion, Russian princes actively communicated with European houses and were frequent guests there. Many were in family relations, because it was a matter of everyday life to marry the daughter of a European king or to marry a foreign duke. But after Kievan Rus was under the yoke, there was a long pause in relations with Europe. When the Russians again began to contact their neighbors, the latter did not cease to be amazed at the changes that had taken place, before them there was a state in which Eastern traditions reigned, based on Slavic dogmas.
Undoubtedly, it is impossible to say unequivocally where this or that tradition or rite came from, but it is difficult to overestimate the role of the Golden Horde in the life of Russia. In fairness, it is worth noting that the consequence was not only defeat and devastation, but new trends in development, which became the reason for the rise of Moscow and the creation of a single state, and not scattered principalities. Many eminent historians agree that the experience of an external enemy forced the scattered principalities to unite among themselves.
Of the undoubted advantages, it is worth noting the fact that the Mongols were a nomadic people who used completely different methods of governing the state, used other military methods. It was after the Tatar-Mongol yoke that the forced development of the northern part began, the local population moved there, trying to escape from the invaders by flight. If it were not for this danger, it is not known what and when would have forced people to go to regions that are difficult for life.
Before the Mongols came to the Russian lands, the Vladimir principality had the leading positions, and Moscow was only a part of it. Since the large cities suffered the most from the Tatars, the population of them poured westward, thereby increasing the population of Moscow and Tver.
Probably, in the future Moscow would have faced a similar fate, but the local princes managed to find a common language with the Horde khans. Realizing that they are also interested in receiving tribute on a regular basis, and intend to use the Russian army for further conquests, the Moscow princes understood that their prosperity and stability were also needed by the people of the Golden Horde.
The process dragged on so long that even the invaders themselves missed the moment when Moscow became strong enough to pose a threat. The Battle of Kulikovo played a role in this, becoming a key moment in the unification of Russia.
Before the invaders invaded Russian lands, trade relations were conducted exclusively with neighbors from the south and northwest. After the Golden Horde began to dominate the Russian lands, the eastern direction began to play a key role. Moscow, located on the border of two worlds, began to play an important role in trade between them.
In addition to trade advantages, Moscow also had close cooperation in terms of military technology and combat tactics. If the Russians used the sword in the old fashioned way, then they adopted the saber from the Tatars-Mongols, became lighter and more maneuverable in comparison with the knights who carried on themselves and with them a huge amount of armor and weapons.
Despite the mutually beneficial cooperation, the Golden Horde perceived Russia as its fiefdom, which brings profit and gives warriors. They had their own "selfish" interest, for the sake of which they even conducted a population census - a very progressive step for this period.
It was the Tatars-Mongols who organized a centralized transportation system on the conquered territory. The main reason was Yamskaya duty. The offerings for the khan were to be delivered quickly, regularly, and safely. For this, a special service is organized - coachmen. Kievan Rus also had means of communication and trade routes, but this sphere received active development only after the conquerors entered the business.
The tax collection system was one of the most advanced in the world at that time. The Russians even adopted it and used it later. Its main principles consisted of two points: it did not exceed the capabilities of taxpayers, that is, it was feasible, but at the same time not too easy. And she was recovered without fail, and by means of intimidation and cruel methods. This made it possible to maintain a delicate balance - it did not allow them to become completely impoverished, but also to get stronger to overthrow the yoke too.
Household habits and interpersonal relationships left over from the conquerors
In fact, many everyday habits, including superstitions, have Tatar-Mongol roots. For example, the habit of not passing objects across the threshold, according to many researchers, came from the Türks. Or the custom of throwing up, "swinging" in the hands of the leader, the leader also came from the Mongols, it was customary for them to lift the chosen khan up several times. Conquerors also brought games with a touch of excitement to the Russians. Including chess, there is no mention of these games at all until the 13th century. It was at this time that the church began to play a huge role, the conquerors understood how important the mission it was, limiting people better than any laws and intimidation.
The culture of the East is characterized by pomp, luxury and emphasis on privileged position. The crowd of "advisers", or, more simply, those who are only able to flatter the khan, was borrowed as a phenomenon from the Mongol khans. It is from here that worship begins - kisses on the hand, kneeling, bowing and all kinds of belittling of oneself. This habit of belittling human dignity in front of those in power is still widespread in Russia.
Since that time, the princes have become almost messengers of God on earth, they began to live much better than ordinary people, in huge chambers, to own untold riches, to eat better, to live better and not deny themselves anything, even if their people were in poverty and dying from hunger. They began to wear luxurious clothes, use gold and silver for sewing, embroider with precious stones. This is where the tradition of bestowing from one's shoulder originated. After all, what would be the essence of the gift if it were not expensive, like, for example, a camisole embroidered with rubies and emeralds. In Russian folklore, this began to be called the "lord's shoulder", while the tradition is exclusively Tatar.
In general, oriental motives have firmly entered Russian life.Men began to grow beards and shave their heads, wore small neat hats everywhere, and stopped going out without a headdress altogether. Even the boots became curved toes. Towers with onion-shaped tips began to be built precisely from those times, they are actually built according to the Turkic model, although now they are presented as an original Russian style.
From that time on, the tradition began to impale, punish with a whip, blows on the heels with sticks and other cruel tortures and executions.
Patriarchy and gender inequality as a legacy from the East
Patriarchy, which turned out to be very durable and tenacious for Russian society, is explained precisely by the Muslim reclusive way of life of women and the attitude towards them. Yes, at the moment there is no question that a woman should be locked at home, without her own interests and social circle. However, in society, the opinion is still strong that a woman's place is at home by the stove, with children, and the latter is better as much as possible. It was from that time that girls began to be given in marriage without asking their permission. Often they did not even know their future husband.
This attitude towards a woman, multiplied by the love of Russians for drinking, gave very specific results, making Russian women a "universal soldier" who would stop a horse at a gallop and enter a burning hut. But at the same time, she practically has no right to anything, and if she is divorced or left without a husband, then they will feel sorry for her, they say, she was left without a reliable shoulder.
Russian women, too, began to be locked up in towers. And they went out into the street only accompanied by a husband, father or brother. They could not even go to church on their own, only with their family or one of their male relatives. Marriages, too, began to be concluded based on parental preferences, and not on the sympathies of the young. The information that told about what forms acquired the forms of courtship and acquaintances have not been preserved. But it was precisely looking at the oriental beauties that Russian girls began to make up.
Whitewash and blush were already in the arsenal of local girls, but they learned to emphasize eyes, eyelashes and eyebrows with antimony and other colors from the eastern peoples. The result was the wildest combination of "pluck your eyes out". A white face, ruddy cheeks combined with black eyebrows and eyelashes produced a stunning effect. Although in the Horde itself at that time it was generally accepted to paint their teeth black, paint with shadows under the eyes.
We can say that the Tatar-Mongols radically changed the attitude towards women and her position in society. There is no trace of the former equality, which was adopted in Kievan Rus according to the European model. Probably, local men decided that the patriarchy of nomads was very convenient and willingly adopted their ways of building relationships with women. Since then, the man has become a breadwinner and hunter, and a woman is a creature lower in the hierarchy. Despite the fact that in Russia, traditionally, most of the work was done by women.
The women were kept in the chambers for a very long time. This is especially true for wealthy representatives and well-to-do families. This was reflected in many fairy tales, where the girl was waiting in a dungeon or a high mansion for her good fellow, and her father played a decisive role in choosing a life partner for her daughter.
The invaders changed the attitude of Russians not only to women, but also to military affairs. The most popular weapon is the saber and the bow, all elements of the harness change according to the eastern prototype. They actively use various tricks, military dexterity, attack from an ambush and do not accept fair combat, as was customary before. This is just not surprising, because Russia was conquered precisely because the military training was not as perfect as the attacking army, which means that adopting their experience means becoming more perfect in military affairs.
Tatar-Mongols annually took away thousands of slaves, and most of them (almost 80%) were girls and very young girls, starting from 8 years old.No one could interfere with this vile tradition, and wealthy families bought their girls back, having managed to collect the necessary amount for this. And this continued until the 17-18 centuries. According to modern estimates, more than 6 million people were taken away.
Turkic influence on the Russian language
Such a long interaction and communication could not but affect not only the manners of housekeeping, military affairs and attitude towards women, but also in the Russian language. The influence of the Tatar-Mongols on the Russian language is difficult to overestimate, because a huge number of words with Turkic roots have entered the Russian lexicon so deeply that they are not perceived as borrowed.
Most of these words are in the spheres where the Slavs and Tatar-Mongols were in contact most often. First of all, this concerns money, taxes and military affairs. Perhaps the most common word that is still used today, which has Turkic roots, is “money”. Treasury, customs (from "tamga") are also Tatar-Mongolian designations. If we talk about military affairs, then the usual "guard" appeared from the same place. Moreover, the traditional Russian cry "Hurray!", With which Soviet soldiers went into battle to intimidate the German enemy and raise their own spirit, was once brought by the Golden Horde. The Mongols, for the fight they used the cry "Urgash", which literally means "forward".
There is a Tatar trace in many proverbs, sayings and well-established expressions. For example, the proverb about a horse and its teeth or a dog barking at a caravan was introduced into Russian folklore by the Golden Horde. Their trace is found even in ditties, which, it would seem, are the personification of Russian culture and primordial Russian folklore. It was since then that the suffix "schik" was used to denote a profession. At that time, for example, a "coachman" appeared.
The invaders had a huge influence on the food culture, bringing with them spices, spices and other features of their cuisine, which seemed very attractive to the Russians. For example, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon and ginger, popular to this day, appeared in Russia along with the Golden Horde. Not that they were specially brought to the Russians, or rather, they were transported through the territories of Kievan Rus, so they ended up on the tables of Russian princes. Then the Slavs tried melons, watermelons and eagerly eat them to this day.
Kvass, which is considered a Russian drink, has about the same history of origin. It was made due to the fact that the Mongols carried their products through the territory of the Slavs. Manty, rice, noodles, and, of course, dried fruits appeared in Russia thanks to the Golden Horde.
Despite the fact that communication and cooperation in many areas was forced on the part of the Slavs, one way or another the Turkic peoples left their mark on Russian culture, the echoes of which are still heard. It cannot be said that it had an exclusively negative connotation, on the contrary, to a certain extent, expanding the capabilities of the people and making their horizons wider, and their adaptability to life, higher.
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