Table of contents:
- Childhood Faith and Tipping Point
- Lomonosov the Old Believer
- Fighting Church Rituals
- Condemnation of the Synod and Complaints to the Empress
Video: What caused the conflict between Christian Lomonosov and the church
2023 Author: Richard Flannagan | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 05:58
The name of Mikhail Lomonosov is associated today with a loud historical figure, but his real scientific merits are not known to everyone. For a quarter of a century, this man worked as two scientific institutes - natural sciences and humanitarian. The volume of his scientific developments is amazing. Considering the basis of his vocation to be chemical scientific specialization, he became famous in the circles of physicists, astronomers, historians, and had a reputation as a talented poet. But one more side of Lomonosov's personality is also known - the anti-church one. At the same time, the scientist remained a deeply religious person all his life.
Childhood Faith and Tipping Point
Religious foundations were instilled in Lomonosov from early childhood. His mother came from the family of a deacon and a mallet. Elena Ivanovna saw in her son the potential for spiritual service, so she diligently dedicated him to the Christian faith. The boy's father actively participated in the construction of a new church in his native village. And while construction was underway, local parishioners gathered in their house.
Lomonosov received his first education in the psalter from a village deacon, who introduced the child to regular church services. The academic biography of the scientist testifies that as a child he was already considered the best reader in the parish church, even daring to make professional remarks to the official ministers of the parish. But after the early death of his mother and the marriage of his father to his new chosen one, the boy fell into a spiritual crisis, which greatly affected his relationship with the church. The church confession book noted that Michael refused to attend confession with the sacrament in the company of his father and stepmother. After some time, the path of the future luminary of Russian science led to schismaticism.
Lomonosov the Old Believer
Biographers linked the young Lomonosov's attraction to the Old Believers for several reasons. For example, the author of a monograph about Mikhail Lomonosov, Shubinsky, believed that the reason was the rejection of the harsh reclusive way of life, which he considered during his stay in the Solovetsky monastery. But the main version is that the reason lies in the irrepressible striving for knowledge, reading literature, comprehending the essence of phenomena.
One way or another, the scientist left for two years into the Old Believer world of a strong and very influential community in the Russian north, headed by the Denisov brothers. In the realities of the first half of the 18th century, they were rightfully considered to be literate, non-standard and advanced people. But later, when the guy embarked on the path of a great scientist, the old environment ceased to suit him. It is not known exactly how long he kept in touch with the schism, but in the end, this thread was severed. And already in his mature years, Lomonosov called the Old Believers "superstitions."
Fighting Church Rituals
The scientific interests of Mikhail Vasilyevich put him in front of a serious dilemma - where is the border between religious beliefs in the truth of the church and scientific knowledge? Lomonosov increasingly began to doubt the steadfastness of Christian dogmas about the world order and tried to test all kinds of phenomena by scientific experience. This position was facilitated by the mood of the Age of Enlightenment, which gave rise to a rethinking of established values.
The inquisitive mind of the researcher questioned the centuries-old church traditions. The most radical thoughts of the scientist concerned some Christian customs, which he described in detail in his work "On the Preservation and Reproduction of the Russian People." He believed that tonsuring young men and women into monasticism was unacceptable from the point of view of the development and reproduction of a healthy nation. Lomonosov also objected to the baptism of infants in winter with cold water, which provokes illness and even children's deaths. Harmful he called exhausting fasting, which was usually followed by gluttony when breaking the fast.
But the clergy got the most from the great scientist. Lomonosov was not an opponent of the very institution of the church. But he was outraged by the overt vices of some representatives of the Orthodox clergy. In his literary works, he condemned the libertines, drunkards, bigots, ignoramuses among the provincial clergy. According to the scientist, only a minister of the altar who is able to lead a truly righteous life according to the commandments of God could be called a spiritual teacher. As such examples to follow, Mikhail Vasilyevich cited the names of the Protestant German pastors with whom he was familiar.
In his spiritual preferences, Lomonosov was close to the Western enlighteners-deists of the 18th century, for whom God was the principle of the life of nature according to its laws. A real scientist for him was the discoverer of God's creation, knowing the harmony of God's plan, embodied in nature. Such a worldview from the point of view of the Orthodox Church, unfriendly with science, was perceived as disbelief, therefore Lomonosov was regularly subjected to pressure from churchmen, who expressed attacks on natural science in sermons.
Condemnation of the Synod and Complaints to the Empress
Lomonosov's enmity with the churchmen was reflected in his poetic works. One of these was the poem "Hymn to the Beard", angrily ridiculing the Russian "bearded men". When the "Hymn to the Beard" became known, the churchmen were furious. Elizaveta Petrovna, on behalf of the Synod, was presented with a detailed report on impious verses demanding punishment for Lomonosov. This could threaten the scientist with serious problems, because such attacks were severely punished in the 18th century. But Lomonosov was saved, apparently, by the intervention of high patrons, in particular, Shuvalov. But there was a stir around this composition.
All his enemies attacked the scientist with pamphlets and libels; the polemics of these literary duels were aggressive and harsh. And this case was far from the only public scandal between the venerable academician, supporters of the traditional church and the Holy Synod. But at the same time, it was Lomonosov who was the author of the laudatory inscription on the tombstone of St. Demetrius of Rostov, an honored clergyman. Being intolerant of the imperfection of the Synod and calling for the reform of the utopian church life, Lomonosov remained a believer.
And the famous Russian artist Vasily Perov was almost sent into exile for a painting "Rural religious procession at Easter".
Christian analogues of Old Church Slavonic holidays, or why the church could not defeat Maslenitsa and Ivan Kupala
Christianity, introduced in Russia by Prince Vladimir in 988, actually put an end to the development of the solar cult. For a long time the new religion could not oust the remnants of paganism from the consciousness of the people. Some Slavs remained faithful to Dazhdbog, Khors and Perun, others - mixed the two faiths, "merging" their gods with Christian saints, and still others worshiped brownies. Such a term as dual faith appeared, with which the clergy fought for a long time. To "erase" the ancient Slavic traditions, church and St
On June 21, Valery Zolotukhin would have turned 75 years old, but three years ago he passed away. The difficult character of the actor often became the cause of conflicts with friends and colleagues, and even after his death, many could not forgive him for long-standing grievances. After the release of E. Ryazanov's documentary about Vysotsky, everyone started talking about the fact that Zolotukhin "sat down" on his friend and was preparing to play Hamlet instead. The actor himself was outraged by this interpretation of their disagreement and gave his own commentary on what happened. Ochevi
Cecile Barker's works are well known to the Russian audience - usually without mentioning the artist's name. Adorable flower fairies, so similar to real children, inhabit book pages and postcards, they are illustrated by posts on the Internet and congratulations sent by e-mail … But behind these cute scenes there is a difficult struggle between creative freedom, earnings and … faith
How in the USSR they fought with religion, and what came out of the confrontation between the state and the church
Perhaps, in no other country has the relationship between state and religion been so diametrically opposed as in Russia, and in a relatively short period of time. Why did the Bolsheviks decide to get rid of the church, and, for example, not win it over to their side, because its influence on the population was always tangible. However, to tell the society to immediately stop believing in what they believed in all their life is practically impossible, because this struggle between religion and statehood was waged
What the Soviet Chukchi and American Eskimos did not share in 1947 and how they almost fanned the conflict between the USSR and the USA
Most anthropological scientists agree that the inhabitants of the North, the Eskimos and the Chukchi, belong to the same race - the so-called Arctic. Those who hold a different opinion cannot but agree that over the long history of the northern peoples there has been such a close interpenetration of ethnic groups that they have actually become relatives. And yet, despite such close ties, the indigenous population of Soviet Chukotka and American Alaska was constantly at odds with