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Video: 5 ingenious inventions of the past, the secret of which has not been revealed to this day
2023 Author: Richard Flannagan | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 13:10
In the 21st century, people tend to experience a sense of superiority by looking back in time. However, there is no reason for such arrogance. Despite the lack of advanced technologies, intensive development of science, many things were invented in antiquity that go beyond modern understanding. Scientists have not been able to recreate many of them until now.
Antonio Stradivari is the creator of musical instruments, the most famous of which are violins. A little more than 700 of them have survived to this day. The incredible clarity and depth of sound makes each Stradivarius instrument unique. Almost 300 years have passed since the death of the Italian master, and his creations are still alive. Moreover, the violins have hardly aged, and their sound has not deteriorated.
Researchers are still wondering how Stradivari managed to reach such heights in violin making. There are several popular versions. Some people think that it's all about the form. Antonio Stradivari lengthened the body of the instrument, and made creases inside. Other scholars are inclined to the version about the special materials from which the master made violins: the lower decks were made of maple, and the upper ones were made of spruce. Still others argue that the whole point is in a special impregnation. The master initially soaked the hull in seawater, and then soaked it with certain mixtures with special resins.
But, when the Stradivarius violin was covered with modern varnish, the sound did not change. In another experiment, the varnish was scraped off completely, but the sound quality remained the same. To date, no one can repeat the creations of the great master.
Roman legend says that there was once a substance called liquid glass. The politician Pliny the Younger and the historian Dio Cassius talked everywhere about the glazier who created amazing things. It got to the point that the craftsmen were brought to court before the Emperor Tiberius between the 14th and 37th years of our era. The governor took the flexible glass bowl and threw it on the floor. The bowl was rumpled but not broken. The craftsman removed the dent with a small hammer. Tiberius, fearing that the new material might undermine the value of silver and gold, decapitated the glazier.
Greek fire is a kind of combustible mixture used by the Byzantines in naval battles since the 7th century. In historical chronicles, a description of the action of this substance has been preserved. At sea, "Greek fire" was a terrible weapon for enemy ships.
The Greek fire was invented by the engineer and architect Kallinikos in 673. The device looked like a copper pipe ("siphon"), from which a combustible mixture burst out with loud sounds. The range of the installations was 25-30 meters. The "Greek fire" could not be extinguished; it continued to burn even on the surface of the water. The last mention of the use of a combustible mixture in battle dates back to 1453. When the mass exploitation of gunpowder-based weapons began, the "Greek fire" lost its significance, and its recipe was lost.
According to legend, blades made of Damascus steel could cut a hair falling on the blade, easily cut through iron armor. In terms of strength, they were many times superior to other swords. A distinctive feature of Damascus steel was considered to be special patterns on the surface. The steel got its name in honor of the capital of Syria, Damascus, but it is known that the city itself was not engaged in the manufacture of weapons. Perhaps this is due to the large market in the city where the blades were sold. By the 1700s, the secret of making Damascus steel had been lost.
In ancient times, mitridatius was considered an absolute antidote. It owes its appearance to the Pontic king Mithridates IV. The ruler believed that his own mother daily poisoned him with small doses of poison. Then he invented a potion consisting of 65 ingredients. Thanks to the antidote, Mithridates IV managed to avoid death more than once. In the Middle Ages, Mithridates was considered a panacea for the plague. Also, according to our ancestors, Mithridates was considered an antidote for these 6 deadliest poisons in history