Table of contents:
- Clothes made in England and German printed sheets
- Interest in the Western press and the establishment of a regular postal line
- The first wallpapers and European gadgets
- Palace "comedy acts" and the practice of bloodletting
Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov ruled from 1645 to 1676 and was nicknamed the Quietest. But his character did not prevent him from carrying out a lot of interesting reforms. Many believe that the reform began in the era of Peter the Great. However, it all started earlier, when Alexei Tishaishy conducted his experiments. Read what German printed sheets are, what gadgets of that time the Tsar really liked and how he modernized Russian medicine.
Clothes made in England and German printed sheets
Alexei Mikhailovich began to show interest in everything European in early childhood, when he looked at cognitive pictures. These were illustrations printed in Germany and called "German Printed Sheets". On them, the future ruler looked at the drawn objects and phenomena, learning this difficult world. According to historians, these wonderful pictures were purchased from overseas sellers in the Moscow market for 3 altyns.
The prince had a tutor, boyar Boris Morozov. When Alexey grew up a little, the mentor decided that it was time to broaden his horizons in fashion. This, according to Morozov, was supposed to help the heir to the Russian throne to show his individuality, to become an example of style. The tailors of the German settlement were ordered dresses made according to the so-called "fryazhskaya cut". Morozov did not stop there, and after a while the prince received several English dresses from the Muscovy Company. It is not known how much he liked these clothes, but the fact remains. By the way, a little historical background: Muscovy Company was a very influential English trading house, which since the time of Ivan IV remained a monopoly on trade with Russia. The company was founded in 1551 and operated until 1698.
Interest in the Western press and the establishment of a regular postal line
Alexei Tishaishy was the first tsar to pay much attention to the European media. So that the sovereign would always be aware of all events, translations of English, French, Dutch and other newspapers were made daily in the Ambassadorial Prikaz. The tsar carefully studied everything, and those articles that, in his opinion, were worthy of the attention of others, read the boyars during the sessions of the Boyar Duma. By the way, by this he grossly violated court etiquette, since the king should not have read aloud - for this there were clerks. So political information was introduced by the Russian sovereign a long time ago.
The interest in the events taking place abroad inspired Alexey Mikhailovich to establish a regular postal line, which was supposed to connect Moscow with Riga, and further with the postal system of Europe. It all began in 1659, when the king began to think about the constant delivery of foreign newspapers. And the postal line was created in 1665.
The first wallpapers and European gadgets
The complexity of the court ceremony has always irritated the progressive Alexei Mikhailovich. And he decided to simplify it, focusing on the West. And not only this. The quietest was the first of the royal dynasty to personally sign all letters and diplomatic acts. The boyars grumbled, as such actions belittled the king in the eyes of his subjects. But the Emperor did not pay any attention to this, carried away by his ideas.
The tsar was on military campaigns and there he looked closely at the European way of life. He liked certain moments so much that Alexei Mikhailovich decided that they must be introduced in Russia as well. For example, the wallpapers familiar today came to our country with the light hand of the Quietest. He really liked the idea of decorating the walls with this material. The tsar also liked European furniture made in the still fashionable “baroque” style, and it was decided to install such items in the palace.
European gadgets of that time aroused great interest in the king. Of course, no one had heard of mobile phones then, but telescopes were produced. Alexei Mikhailovich was fond of astronomy, and therefore with pleasure he examined the sky through a telescope ordered for him in Denmark. The tsar followed technical progress and always tried to take the best. For example, by the end of his reign, Alexei undertook to modernize his own vehicles: he boldly replaced the not very comfortable Russian with a comfortable and luxurious-looking carriage from Germany.
Palace "comedy acts" and the practice of bloodletting
But not only transport has been modernized. Inspired by the achievements of the Europeans, the tsar set about updating domestic medicine. The first experience was the introduction of the most fashionable method of treatment in the West, namely, bloodletting. In those days it was called "opening the blood." Progressive Alexei Mikhailovich tested the method on himself, using the services of a German doctor. Assessing his feelings, the sovereign urged the boyars to also take advantage of the fashionable medical procedure. Boyar Streshnev, who was very conservative, spoke out against modernization. Historians write that with this he pissed off the king, so much so that the Quietest hit him in the face.
The church did not approve of the sovereign's hobbies, but the clergy did not consider it possible to criticize the actions of the ruler. However, there was a moment when the church expressed its disapproval. It happened when Aleksey Tishaishiy started arranging so-called chamber "comedy acts" in the palace. To perform the roles, foreign actors who lived in the German settlement were invited. The patience of the ministers of the church ran out, and they expressed their opinion to the king. They tried to convince the sovereign that such entertainments were unnecessary, since they had a bad effect on spirituality. But he did not take into account these arguments, and regular performances continued. After all, the Tsar's children were crazy about such comedy performances, and Tsarevich Peter Alekseevich especially liked them.
Of course, Alexei Mikhailovich is not the only reformer in Russia. Without these 10 great personalities Russia would be a completely different state.