Table of contents:
- Discussions with Mendeleev and high positions
- Duel for the honor of the family
- Liberal or conservative
- Enemies of the Prime Minister and Confrontation with Rasputin
- Fatal 11th Attempt and Prophetic Testament
At the time of Stolypin's birth, his noble family had existed for over 300 years. The legendary poet Lermontov was a fairly close relative of Pyotr Arkadyevich. Fearlessness is associated with the personality of Stolypin, in addition to his state merits. More than ten assassination attempts fell to his lot, but he did not retreat from his principles. The legendary reformer of the Russian Empire in different periods served as governor in several provinces, then was appointed head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and by the end of his life he became prime minister. The innovations of Pyotr Stolypin were at that time, if not a breakthrough, then at least a lifeline. Many of his decisions are still recognized by researchers as an effective way to suppress the revolution of 1905-1907.
Discussions with Mendeleev and high positions
After successfully graduating from high school in 1881, Pyotr Stolypin became a student at St. Petersburg University, the natural department of the Physics and Mathematics Faculty. The knowledge of the zealous student Stolypin was so deep that he even managed to start a discussion with the great chemist Mendeleev. Even then, Stolypin was interested in the economic modernization of Russia.
His first dissertation dealt with tobacco crops in the Russian south. By the beginning of the 20th century, Stolypin, in the position of the district leader of the nobility in Kovno, was actively involved in educating the peasants and improving their life. During this period of his activity, the young figure gains important knowledge and experience in managing the economy.
Stolypin's energetic and effective actions impressed the Minister of Internal Affairs Plehve, on whose recommendation Stolypin was appointed governor of Grodno. In the new chair, Pyotr Arkadyevich modernizes farming, raising the educational level of the peasants. Most of the contemporaries not only do not understand the aspirations of the governor, but also condemn these initiatives.
In 1903, Stolypin was reassigned to the Saratov province. The Russo-Japanese War was greeted by him negatively. Already an experienced business executive stood on the fact that the Russian soldier was not ready to fight for the interests of others in a foreign land. The riots of 1905, which grew into a revolution, Stolypin met boldly, speaking in front of the protesters and not at all afraid of an angry crowd. By the power of his word, he manages to suppress speeches and illegal initiatives on the part of all political forces. This activity attracts the attention of Nicholas II, who in 1906 appoints Stolypin as the head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and later, after the dissolution of the First State Duma, as the imperial prime minister.
Duel for the honor of the family
The other side of life did not bypass the statesman either. Pyotr Stolypin got married while still a student, although at that time it was considered something unusual. Some chroniclers say that Stolypin simply chased after a rich dowry, while others claim that the young man defended family honor. The future wife of Peter Arkadievich was the bride of his brother, who died after a duel. And supposedly on his deathbed, the brother asked Peter to become his intended husband. Whatever it was, but this marriage became happy: according to the testimony of contemporaries, the spouses lived in perfect harmony. The family had six children. And Stolypin's son Arkady, having immigrated to France, later became a famous writer and publicist.
Liberal or conservative
The reform program initiated by Stolypin was a bold attempt to modernize the country, and one that can only be considered liberal-conservative. Petr Arkadyevich strove for the Europeanization of the country in close connection with the historical traditions and precepts of Russia. Of course, history remembers the brutal repressions carried out by Stolypin against the revolutionary movement and political terrorism. But at the same time, during the years of his premiership, a serious breakthrough was made towards legal perfection and economic individual freedoms.
Many political scientists today consider it useful to study the reform experience of Pyotr Arkadyevich. Stolypin wanted to build Russia free in all respects - from poverty, ignorance, lawlessness. In a famous speech in the Second Duma on March 6, 1907, he sets out a program of reforms, which, according to historians, represented a very decisive offensive of liberalism in the entire history of Russia at that time.
Enemies of the Prime Minister and Confrontation with Rasputin
Pyotr Stolypin joined against the revolution. To suppress unrest among the people, he did not disdain the most severe measures. By his decree, courts-martial were created to make decisions on the fate of the "free-thinkers". Each case was considered no more than two days, and the accused were not given the right to defend themselves and express their position. For 8 months, almost 6 thousand death sentences were passed by hanging. Such extremes were noticed by the dissatisfaction of the cadet Fyodor Rodichev, who spoke negatively about Stolypin at a meeting of the State Duma. Hinting at the undeserved gallows, Rodichev used the expression "Stolypin's tie." After that, the meeting was interrupted, and Stolypin, without hesitation, challenged his opponent to a duel.
The latter apologized, Stolypin forgave him. And only the "Stolypin tie" is firmly stuck in history. The prime minister was also disliked at court. The conflict arose out of Stolypin's antipathy to Rasputin. Peter Arkadievich openly called on the emperor to expel the "holy elder" from the capital. When this became known to Alexandra Fedorovna, who was especially benevolent to Rasputin, she even demanded from her husband the resignation of the slanderous Stolypin.
Fatal 11th Attempt and Prophetic Testament
For 6 years, eleven attempts were made on Pyotr Arkadyevich. The latter ended with the death of a prominent statesman. One of the loudest attempts at reprisals ended in the death of 24 people from Stolypin's entourage, and even his own children were among the wounded.
In the early autumn of 1911, Stolypin arrived in Kiev, having attended the performance "The Tale of Tsar Saltan". An unknown person came close to him, firing twice at point-blank range. For 4 days, doctors fought for the life of the prime minister, but to no avail. In his will, Pyotr Arkadyevich asked to be buried at the scene of the murder. For this reason, it was decided to bury the minister in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, near the church of St. Anthony and Theodosius. Stolypin's killer turned out to be Dmitry Bogrov, who was later executed on Lysaya Gora. He was arrested several times as a member of an anti-government organization. He managed to avoid long-term punishment thanks to the well-established connections of an influential father - a attorney at law and a famous Kiev homeowner.
And another prominent figure, Mikhail Speransky raised emperors and was the most influential person in the empire.