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Noble "nests" of Moscow: Capital estates, which were lucky enough to survive in the vicissitudes of history
Noble "nests" of Moscow: Capital estates, which were lucky enough to survive in the vicissitudes of history
Anonim

Unfortunately, the fate of most of the old estates in Moscow and its environs is very sad - during the revolution and after it, they were destroyed and plundered. But there are those among them that have survived in their original form, thereby preserving the historical memory of their creators and owners. And now these old estates are the real treasures of the metropolitan metropolis, because everything here "breathes" a long history. Let's walk through some of them …

(K.D.Balmont)

"" A.N. Grech "Wreath for estates" But let's not talk about sad things …

If earlier many estates were built several versts from the city, now they have entered the Moscow line and have become part of the capital, its city parks.

Manor KUZMINKA

Manor Kuzminki

Kuzminki, one of the largest estates, is the most interesting landscape and architectural ensemble of Moscow. The history of this estate, which is more than 300 years old, is associated with such famous names as the Stroganov barons and the Golitsyn princes.

At the end of the 18th century, a huge English park was laid out here, the very first landscape park in Moscow, which was looked after by about 300 gardeners and designers. Moreover, many of them were discharged from abroad. The largest part of the estate was reserved for this park. The peculiarity of the English park is that it creates the illusion of natural nature, as if you are in the forest.

English Park Hood. I.N. Rauch

Such a park cannot be spoiled, it can only be cut down, therefore it still pleases its visitors today. At the beginning of the 19th century, the owner of the estate, Prince Sergei Mikhailovich Golitsyn, undertook a radical reconstruction, which he succeeded perfectly well.

Portrait of Prince S.M. Golitsyn. Hood. V.A.Tropinin

The sophisticated style of the renovated buildings and the grandiose park with an exceptionally well-groomed territory delighted contemporaries. It is not for nothing that they began to call it Moscow Pavlovsk or Russian Versailles.

I.N. Rauch. The end of the Lipovaya Alley and the palace in Kuzminki I.N. Rauch. View of the manor house from the side of the pond

The Golitsyns owned iron foundries, and real masterpieces were cast on them to decorate the estate - unique gates, fences, benches, figures of lions and griffins. Also on the territory of the estate were erected monuments to Peter I, Maria Fedorovna and Nicholas I.

Unfortunately, the main building of the Golitsyn estate, which burned down in 1916, was not preserved in its original form, and a new one was built on the old foundation in 1930.

The Lord's House Today Facade of the manor house. 19th century

Manor KUSKOVO

The Sheremetyevs, being very wealthy people, were one of the first among the Moscow nobility to acquire a summer country residence in the 18th century. Designed for receptions and balls, it was distinguished by luxury and pomp. The construction was carried out according to the designs of the best architects of that time - Karl Blank and Yuri Kologrivov. The main work here was carried out under Peter Borisovich Sheremetyev.

The heart of this beautiful manor is a well-preserved French park with ponds, covering an area of ​​over 30 hectares. It is decorated with numerous marble sculptures and original pavilions.

Moscow nobles loved to come to the Sheremetyevs, sometimes the number of guests reached 30 thousand. Guests were always welcome here, and for them there was "", was in the estate and their own theater, which even competed with the imperial one. The architectural complex of the estate consists of a Palace, two houses, Italian and Dutch, pavilions - "Grotto", "Greenhouse", "Hermitage" and the Church of the All-Merciful Savior.

The magnificent Palace, built of wood, has retained its original layout and rich interior. The palace is plastered over the wood and painted in a delicate pink color.

The most unusual building in Kuskovo is the Hermitage, a two-story building with an elevator. Here Count Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetyev, the son of Pyotr Borisovich, often met with his favorite, serf actress Praskovya Zhemchugova, whose love story many know. The servants on the ground floor set the table for them and took it upstairs by elevator. Subsequently, the count married Praskovya, and she became the full-fledged mistress of the estate.

Count Nikolay Petrovich Sheremetyev N.I. Argunov (Portrait of P.I.Kovaleva-Zhemchugova

Kolomenskoye Estate

The Kolomenskoye estate, located in the south of the capital, spreads over a vast area of ​​390 hectares. There is an extensive park overlooking the embankment of the Moskva River, and there is also an untouched virgin forest. Kolomenskoye is also famous for its famous gardens, in addition, Peter's oaks, whose age reaches 600 years, have been preserved here. According to legend, young Peter, the future Russian emperor, was learning to read and write under their shadow.

Gardens in Kolomenskoye Petrovsky oaks

Kolomenskoye has long served as the fiefdom of Moscow rulers, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich especially loved to be here. During his reign, unique ancient wooden buildings were brought here from all over the country. For himself, Aleksey Mikhailovich erected in Kolomenskoye a bright and colorful wooden fairy-tale palace of 270 rooms, which many contemporaries called the eighth wonder of the world.

In 1775, Catherine II commissioned the architect Vasily Bazhenov to build a royal residence here. The dilapidated by that time wooden palace of Alexei Mikhailovich was dismantled and a new one was erected in its place, which also has not survived. However, they did not manage to finish the work, which lasted for several years. In connection with the transfer of the capital to St. Petersburg, the courtyard moved to the city on the Neva, funding for the construction practically stopped and the estate began to fall into desolation.

In 1990, work began on the restoration of this estate and its architectural monuments. It was even possible to restore the famous palace of Alexei Mikhailovich using the surviving drawings. And now in the open air there is a real museum of wooden architecture.

Palace of Alexei Mikhailovich

Tsaritsyno estate

Construction work on the construction of the residence for Catherine II began here in the 70s of the 18th century. The empress attracted the famous architect Vasily Bazhenov to work, approving the plan of the future estate presented by him, which was drawn up taking into account all her wishes. 10 years later, when the construction of the estate was nearing the end, Catherine II came to look at the work and was dissatisfied with it. Bazhenov was removed and another architect, Matvey Fedorovich Kazakov, was supposed to finish building the residence. But after the Empress died, all work was stopped.

And only in the 90s of the last century, a radical restoration of this estate began, which ended in 2007. At the same time, many buildings have been restored from almost ruins. Now the Tsaritsyno palace and park ensemble is the most beautiful resting place in the capital with a magnificent palace resembling a fairytale castle, a picturesque park and the famous Tsaritsyno ponds …

Autumn is a great time to walk through the squares and parks.20 retro photographs from walks in parks near Moscow in the 1900s the best confirmation of this.

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